Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C are referred to as the water-soluble vitamins. Solubility in water is one of the only characteristics that they share. Because they are water soluble, these vitamins tend to be absorbed by simple diffusion when ingested in large amounts and by carrier – mediated processes when ingested in smaller amounts. They are distributed in the aqueous phases of the cell. Most are not stored in appreciable amounts, making their regular consumption a necessity.
Thiamin is one of the B group vitamins, a part of many of the chemical reactions in the body. Thiamin plays essential roles in carbohydrate metabolism and neural function. Thiamin (vitamin B1) helps the body's cells convert carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for the functioning of the heart, muscles, and nervous system.
The main role of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
Dietary reference intakes of Thiamin
0.2 – 1.4 mg/day
Thiamin content of selected foods
Fortified ready to eat cereal, 1 cup (9.90 mg)
Pork chop, lean, 3 oz (1.06 mg)
Ham, lean, 3 oz (0.82 mg)
Sunflower seeds, shelled, 1 oz (0.59 mg)
Bagel, plain, 4 inch (0.53 mg)
Green peas, 1 cup (0.45 mg)
Pasta, spaghetti, cooked, 1 cup (0.29 mg)
Rice, white, enriched, cooked, 1 cup (0.26 mg)
Doughnut, yeast, 1 (0.22 mg)
Orange juice, 6 fl oz (0.2 mg)
Symptoms of Thiamin deficiency
Heaviness and weakness of legs
Increased pulse rate and palpitations
Anesthesia of skin, particularly at the tibia
Numbness in legs
Signs of Thiamin toxicity