Vitamin D (calciferol)Vitamin D is known as the sunshine vitamin because modest exposure to sunlight is usually sufficient for most people to produce their own vitamin D using ultraviolet light and cholesterol in the skin.
The functions of vitamin D are in the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis.
Brief and casual exposure of the face, arms and hands to sunlight is thought to equal about 5 mcg (200 IU) of vitamin D. Sun exposure as 5 to 10 minutes of the arms and legs, 2 or 3 times per week – this type of casual exposure seems to provide sufficient vitamin D to last through the winter months except in those unable to go outside.
Dietary reference intakes of vitamin D
Infants and young children 5mcg/day
Adolescents 5 mcg/day
Adults 5-15 mcg/day
Pregnant 5 mcg/day
Lactating 5 mcg/day
1mcg D3 = 40 IU
Vitamin D content of selected foods
Herring, fresh, raw, 1 oz (6.6 mcg)
Salmon, cooked, 1 oz (3.5 mcg)
Milk, cow’s, fortified, 1 cup (2.5 mcg)
Sardines, canned, 1 oz (2.1 mcg)
Liver, chicken, cooked, 3 oz (1.1 mcg)
Egg yolk (0.6 mcg)
Milk, human, 1 cup (0-0.6 mcg)
Symptoms of Vitamin D deficiency
Signs of Vitamin D toxicity
Excessive calcification of bone
Nausea and vomiting